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In reference to a man, mafiusu mafioso in Italian in 19th century Sicily signified "fearless", "enterprising", and "proud", according to scholar Diego Gambetta.
Because Sicily was once an Islamic emirate from to , mafia may have come to Sicilian through Arabic , though the word's origins are uncertain.
Possible Arabic roots of the word include:. Soon after, the use of the term "mafia" began appearing in the Italian state's early reports on the phenomenon.
The term "mafia" was never officially used by Sicilian mafiosi, who prefer to refer to their organization as " Cosa Nostra ". Nevertheless, it is typically by comparison to the groups and families that comprise the Sicilian Mafia that other criminal groups are given the label.
Giovanni Falcone , an anti-Mafia judge murdered by the Sicilian Mafia in , objected to the conflation of the term "Mafia" with organized crime in general:.
While there was a time when people were reluctant to pronounce the word "Mafia" I am no longer willing to accept the habit of speaking of the Mafia in descriptive and all-inclusive terms that make it possible to stack up phenomena that are indeed related to the field of organized crime but that have little or nothing in common with the Mafia.
Scholars such as Diego Gambetta  and Leopoldo Franchetti have characterized the Sicilian Mafia as a "cartel of private protection firms", whose primary business is protection racketeering : they use their fearsome reputation for violence to deter people from swindling, robbing, or competing with those who pay them for protection.
For many businessmen in Sicily, they provide an essential service when they cannot rely on the police and judiciary to enforce their contracts and protect their properties from thieves this is often because they are engaged in black market deals.
The [Sicilian] mafia's principal activities are settling disputes among other criminals, protecting them against each other's cheating, and organizing and overseeing illicit agreements, often involving many agents, such as illicit cartel agreements in otherwise legal industries.
Scholars have observed that many other societies around the world have criminal organizations of their own that provide essentially the same protection service through similar methods.
For instance, in Russia after the collapse of Communism, the state security system had all but collapsed, forcing businessmen to hire criminal gangs to enforce their contracts and protect their properties from thieves.
These gangs are popularly called "the Russian Mafia" by foreigners, but they prefer to go by the term krysha. With the [Russian] state in collapse and the security forces overwhelmed and unable to police contract law, [ In his analysis of the Sicilian Mafia, Gambetta provided the following hypothetical scenario to illustrate the Mafia's function in the Sicilian economy.
Suppose a grocer wants to buy meat from a butcher without paying sales tax to the government. Because this is a black market deal, neither party can take the other to court if the other cheats.
The grocer is afraid that the butcher will sell him rotten meat. The butcher is afraid that the grocer will not pay him.
If the butcher and the grocer can't get over their mistrust and refuse to trade, they would both miss out on an opportunity for profit.
Their solution is to ask the local mafioso to oversee the transaction, in exchange for a fee proportional to the value of the transaction but below the legal tax.
If the butcher cheats the grocer by selling rotten meat, the mafioso will punish the butcher. If the grocer cheats the butcher by not paying on time and in full, the mafioso will punish the grocer.
Punishment might take the form of a violent assault or vandalism against property. The grocer and the butcher both fear the mafioso, so each honors their side of the bargain.
All three parties profit. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. They bribed police into letting them sell liquor which is also illegal and made millions of dollars from this because they were the only ones who had liquor and so could sell it at extremely high prices.
Around this time the gangs in New York became one large gang the Mafia as leaders of the gangs realized that more money could be made if all the gangs worked together.
A man named Giuseppe Masseria and a man named Salvatore Maranzano both wanted to become the boss of the newly made New York mafia. Fighting, known as the "Castellammarese War", broke out between the two men and many of their soldiers were killed.
Giuseppe Masseria's underboss was a man named Lucky Luciano who also wanted to control the New York mafia. He met with Masseria's enemy Salvatore Maranzano and plotted to kill Masseria, his own boss.
Masseria was shot to death in a restaurant in New York by Maranzano's soldiers; one of them was Vito Genovese - a man who would later become boss - this was also the end of the "Castellammarese War".
He called a meeting with the other "mafiosi" plural : Italian language for Mafia members from all over the US and made the rules that are still used today.
The bosses of the five families, particularly Luciano, began to grow tired of Maranzano's arrogance and the way he ran the mafia.
Maranzano realized this and planned to have Luciano and his "consigliere" and "underboss", Vito Genovese and Frank Costello , as well as others, killed.
Maranzano did not act quickly enough and was killed by men dressed as police officers , on the orders of Luciano and his friend, a Jewish gangster from Florida named Meyer Lansky.
Luciano then became the head of the New York mafia, but not in the way Maranzano was; he helped the five families run their business but he did not control them or call himself the "boss of bosses".
The five families were kept. The Profaci family named after the first boss Joseph Profaci went on to become named the Colombo crime family after a later boss, Joseph Colombo.
The Mangano family named after the first boss Vincent Mangano went on to become named the Gambino crime family after a later boss, Carlo Gambino.
The Gagliano family named after the first boss Thomas Gagliano went on to become named the Lucchese crime family after a later boss, Gaetano Lucchese.
Frank Costello became the boss of Luciano's old family which later went on to become named the Genovese crime family after Vito Genovese became the boss and tried to kill Frank Costello.
The Bonanno family named after the first boss Joseph Bonanno kept its name as Joseph Bonanno was the boss for a very long time.
A chart of the bosses of the five families of New York since the "Castellammarese War" would look like this:. Genovese crime family. Many movies have been made about the mafia, particularly the American Mafia.
Here are some of the most popular movies about American gangsters. From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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Wikimedia Commons.If the butcher cheats the grocer by selling rotten meat, the mafioso will punish the butcher. One Www. Joyclub.De out of the circle finds themselves tapped twice, making them the stool pigeon. My word lists. Werewolf is a subject of artificial intelligence research due to its unique features such as persuasion and deception. September Learn how and when to remove this template message.