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When caught early, Lyme disease and STARI can be treated with several weeks of antibiotics, but they are tougher to cure when the disease goes undiagnosed and moves into the nervous system and organs.
In addition, the symptoms — joint swelling, fever, fatigue — can overlap with RA. This is particularly true in Lyme disease, where untreated cases can lead to brain and heart disease, or chronic arthritis.
Around , new cases are diagnosed each year in the United States , and that number may be increasing, according to some experts.
Research published in June in the journal PLoS One found that nearly one-third of ticks carry Lyme, and one-third of those also carry other pathogen diseases, such as babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, and Powassan.
In addition to wearing long sleeves and long pants, the best way to defend against bug bites is to use a repellent on your skin and an insecticide on your clothing.
Here are the best choices:. Some experts, including Dr. Concentrations under 15 percent are not as effective as higher concentrations, according to Consumer Reports testing, and some people may develop skin irritation at amounts above 30 percent.
Stick to 15 percent for these situations. In the Consumer Reports testing, concentrations under 20 percent were not as effective as higher concentrations.
It also may cause mild skin or eye irritation. Use This is a good choice if you want a botanically based repellent, though experts still recommend DEET for the best protection against ticks.
Consumer Reports testing found that the most effective OLE products contained 30 percent; lower concentrations did not perform as well.
In addition to using repellents on your skin, you can spray an insecticide on clothing to kill bugs on contact. You can buy clothes that are pretreated with the insecticide permethrin and that last up to 70 or so washes, or you can spray it on your clothes yourself.
Phototoxic reactions can look like a bad sunburn and may blister. Always use sunscreen in addition to a repellent when exposing skin to the sun, say experts.
Beetles of the family Scarabaeidae dung beetle roll dung into a ball as food and as a brood chamber in which to lay eggs; this way, the larvae hatch and are immediately surrounded by food.
For these reasons the scarab was seen as a symbol of this heavenly cycle and of the idea of rebirth or regeneration. The Egyptian god Khepri, Ra as the rising sun, was often depicted as a scarab beetle or as a scarab beetle-headed man.
The ancient Egyptians believed that Khepri renewed the sun every day before rolling it above the horizon, then carried it through the other world after sunset, only to renew it, again, the next day.
A golden scarab of Nefertiti was discovered in the Uluburun wreck. In the Middle Kingdom scarabs were also engraved with the names and titles of officials and used as official seals.
These "wish" scarabs are often difficult to translate. Amenhotep III immediate predecessor of Akhenaten is famous for having commemorative scarabs made.
These were large mostly between 3. They are beautifully crafted scarabs, apparently created under royal supervision or control and carry lengthy inscriptions describing one of five important events in his reign and all of which mention his queen, Tiye.
These large scarabs continued and developed an earlier Eighteenth Dynasty tradition of making scarabs celebrating specific royal achievements, such as the erection of obelisks at major temples during the reign of Thuthmosis III.
The tradition was revived centuries later during the Twenty-fifth Dynasty , when the Kushite pharaoh Shabaka BCE had large scarabs made commemorating his victories in imitation of those produced for Amenhotep III.
Although scarab amulets were sometimes placed in tombs as part of the deceased's personal effects or as jewelry, generally they have no particular association with ancient Egyptian funerary practices.
There are, however, three types of specifically funerary scarabs, heart scarabs , pectoral scarabs and naturalistic scarabs.
Heart scarabs became popular in the early New Kingdom and remained in use until the Third Intermediate Period. The base of a heart scarab was usually carved, either directly or on a gold plate fixed to the base, with hieroglyphs which name the deceased and repeat some or all of spell 30B from the Book of the Dead.
The spell commands the deceased's heart typically left in the mummy's chest cavity, unlike the other viscera not to give evidence against the deceased, when the deceased is being judged by the gods of the underworld.
It is often suggested that the heart is being commanded not to give false evidence but the opposite may be true.
The Book of the Dead requires the heart scarab to be made of green nemehef stone but a variety of green or dark coloured stones were used.
These were mainly made from faience and glazed blue. The association of pectoral scarabs appears to be with the god Khepri , who is often depicted in the same form.
A third kind of funerary scarab is the naturalistic scarab. Groups of these funerary scarabs, often made from different materials, formed part of the battery of amulets which protected mummies in the Late Period.
When a person died and went to their final judgement, the gods of the underworld would ask many detailed and intricate questions which had to be answered precisely and ritually, according to the Book of the Dead.
Since many people of those days were illiterate, even placing a copy of this scroll in their coffin would not be enough to protect them from being sent to Hell for giving a wrong answer.
As a result, the priests would read the questions and their appropriate answers to the beetle, which would then be killed, mummified, and placed in the ear of the deceased.
When the gods then asked their questions, the ghostly scarab would whisper the correct answer into the ear of the supplicant, who could then answer the gods wisely and correctly.
Scarabs are often found inscribed with the names of pharaohs and more rarely with the names of their queens and other members of the royal family.
Generally, the better established and longer reigning a king was, the more scarabs are found bearing one or more of his names.
Most scarabs bearing a royal name can reasonably be dated to the period in which the person named lived. However, there are a number of important exceptions.
Scarabs are found bearing the names of pharaohs of the Old Kingdom particularly of well-known kings such as Khufu , Khafra and Unas.
It is now believed these were produced in later periods, most probably during the Twenty-fifth Dynasty or Twenty-sixth Dynasty , when there was considerable interest in and imitation of the works of great kings of the past.
Many of these scarabs do date from the long and successful reign of this great warrior pharaoh, or shortly thereafter but many, perhaps the majority, probably do not.
Like all pharaohs, Thuthmosis was regarded as a god after his death. Unlike most pharaohs his cult, centered on his mortuary temple, seems to have continued for years, if not centuries.
As a result, many scarabs bearing the inscription Men Kheper Re are likely to commemorate Thuthmosis III but may have been produced hundreds of years later.
Later pharaohs adopted the same throne name including Piye of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty, — BCE and this can lead to confusion.
The hieroglyphs making Men Kheper Re seem to have become regarded as a protective charm in themselves and were inscribed on scarabs without any specific reference to Thuthmosis III.
It can be doubted that in many cases the carver understood the meaning of the inscription but reproduced it blindly. On a lesser scale the same may be true of the throne name of Rameses II — BCE User Maat Re "the justice of Ra is powerful" , which is commonly found on scarabs which otherwise do not appear to date from his reign.
The birth names of pharaohs were also popular names among private individuals and so, for example, a scarab simply bearing the name "Amenhotep" need not be associated with any particular king who also bore that name.
The significance of a scarab bearing a royal name is unclear and probably changed over time and from scarab to scarab. Many may simply have been made privately in honour of a ruler during or after his lifetime.
Some may also have been royal gifts. In some cases scarabs with royal names may have been official seals or badges of office, perhaps connected with the royal estates or household, others, although relatively few, may have been personal seals owned by the royal individual named on them.
As the king fulfilled many different roles in ancient Egyptian society, so scarabs naming a pharaoh may have had a direct or indirect connection with a wide range of private and public activities.
While it was already a known scarab, the archaeological and historical significance remained unnoticed for some time.
The scarab map features the general layout of the Nile River in Egypt, flanked on both sides by different Egyptian cities that housed Egyptian centers of worship for ten different goddesses.
Curiously, it features Memphis on the east bank of the Nile , which had changed by 1, BCE due to the shifting of the river. The discovery of this scarab is prompting Egyptologists to examine other lesser-known scarabs for pictorial clues to antiquity.
From the late old kingdom onwards Scarab rings developed from scarabs tied to the fingers with threads through full rings with Scarab bezels in the middle kingdom to rings with cast Scarabs in the new kingdom.
Amulets: Scarab and Papyrus. Faience pectoral scarab with spread wings, The Walters Art Museum. Faience pectoral scarab with spread wings and bead net, Royal Pump Room, Harrogate.