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Präsident England

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Prince William will be the king when she passes on. Answer Save. Will Lv 7. England has no president. The UNITED KINGDOM has a queen, and a Prime Minister.

The UK's Prime Minister leader of Parliament at the moment is David Cameron. Jas B Lv 7. This process began after the Hanoverian Succession. Although George I — attended Cabinet meetings at first, after he withdrew because he did not speak fluent English and was bored with the discussions.

George II — occasionally presided at Cabinet meetings but his successor, George III — , is known to have attended only two during his year reign.

Thus, the convention that sovereigns do not attend Cabinet meetings was established primarily through royal indifference to the everyday tasks of governance.

The prime minister became responsible for calling meetings, presiding, taking notes, and reporting to the Sovereign. These simple executive tasks naturally gave the prime minister ascendancy over his Cabinet colleagues.

Although the first three Hanoverians rarely attended Cabinet meetings they insisted on their prerogatives to appoint and dismiss ministers and to direct policy even if from outside the Cabinet.

It was not until late in the 18th century that prime ministers gained control over Cabinet composition see section Emergence of Cabinet Government below.

British governments or ministries are generally formed by one party. The prime minister and Cabinet are usually all members of the same political party, almost always the one that has a majority of seats in the House of Commons.

Coalition governments a ministry that consists of representatives from two or more parties and minority governments a one-party ministry formed by a party that does not command a majority in the Commons were relatively rare before the election, since there has been both a coalition and minority government.

Early in his reign, William III — preferred "mixed ministries" or coalitions consisting of both Tories and Whigs.

William thought this composition would dilute the power of any one party and also give him the benefit of differing points of view.

However, this approach did not work well because the members could not agree on a leader or on policies, and often worked at odds with each other.

In , William formed a homogeneous Whig ministry. Known as the Junto , this government is often cited as the first true Cabinet because its members were all Whigs, reflecting the majority composition of the Commons.

Anne — followed this pattern but preferred Tory Cabinets. This approach worked well as long as Parliament was also predominantly Tory.

However, in , when the Whigs obtained a majority, Anne did not call on them to form a government, refusing to accept the idea that politicians could force themselves on her merely because their party had a majority.

Anne preferred to retain a minority government rather than be dictated to by Parliament. Consequently, her chief ministers Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl of Godolphin and Robert Harley , who were called "Prime Minister" by some, had difficulty executing policy in the face of a hostile Parliament.

William's and Anne's experiments with the political composition of the Cabinet illustrated the strengths of one party government and the weaknesses of coalition and minority governments.

Nevertheless, it was not until the s that the constitutional convention was established that the Sovereign must select the prime minister and Cabinet from the party whose views reflect those of the majority in Parliament.

Since then, most ministries have reflected this one party rule. Despite the "one party" convention, prime ministers may still be called upon to lead either minority or coalition governments.

A minority government may be formed as a result of a " hung parliament " in which no single party commands a majority in the House of Commons after a general election or the death, resignation or defection of existing members.

By convention, the serving prime minister is given the first opportunity to reach agreements that will allow them to survive a vote of confidence in the House and continue to govern.

Until , the last minority government was led by Labour Prime Minister Harold Wilson for eight months after the February general election produced a hung parliament.

In the October general election , the Labour Party gained 18 seats, giving Wilson a majority of three. A hung parliament may also lead to the formation of a coalition government in which two or more parties negotiate a joint programme to command a majority in the Commons.

Coalitions have also been formed during times of national crisis such as war. Under such circumstances, the parties agree to temporarily set aside their political differences and to unite to face the national crisis.

Coalitions are rare: since , there have been fewer than a dozen. When the general election of produced a hung parliament, the Conservative and Liberal Democrat parties agreed to form the Cameron—Clegg coalition , the first coalition in seventy years.

The previous coalition in the UK before was led by Conservative Prime Minister Winston Churchill during most of the Second World War, from May to May Clement Attlee , the leader of the Labour Party, served as Deputy Prime Minister.

The premiership is still largely a convention of the constitution; its legal authority is derived primarily from the fact that the prime minister is also First Lord of the Treasury.

The connection of these two offices — one a convention, the other a legal office — began with the Hanoverian succession in When George I succeeded to the British throne in , his German ministers advised him to leave the office of Lord High Treasurer vacant because those who had held it in recent years had grown overly powerful, in effect, replacing the sovereign as head of the government.

They also feared that a Lord High Treasurer would undermine their own influence with the new king. They therefore suggested that he place the office in "commission", meaning that a committee of five ministers would perform its functions together.

Theoretically, this dilution of authority would prevent any one of them from presuming to be the head of the government. The king agreed and created the Treasury Commission consisting of the First Lord of the Treasury, the Second Lord, and three Junior Lords.

No one has been appointed Lord High Treasurer since ; it has remained in commission for three hundred years. The Treasury Commission ceased to meet late in the 18th century but has survived, albeit with very different functions: the First Lord of the Treasury is now the prime minister, the Second Lord is the Chancellor of the Exchequer and actually in charge of the Treasury , and the Junior Lords are government Whips maintaining party discipline in the House of Commons; they no longer have any duties related to the Treasury, though when subordinate legislation requires the consent of the Treasury it is still two of the Junior Lords who sign on its behalf.

Since the office evolved rather than being instantly created, it may not be totally clear-cut who the first prime minister was.

However, this appellation is traditionally given to Sir Robert Walpole , who became First Lord of the Treasury of Great Britain in In , the South Sea Company , created to trade in cotton, agricultural goods and slaves, collapsed, causing the financial ruin of thousands of investors and heavy losses for many others, including members of the royal family.

King George I called on Robert Walpole, well known for his political and financial acumen, to handle the emergency.

With considerable skill and some luck, Walpole acted quickly to restore public credit and confidence, and led the country out of the crisis.

A year later, the king appointed him First Lord of the Treasury, Chancellor of the Exchequer, and Leader of the House of Commons — making him the most powerful minister in the government.

Ruthless, crude, and hard-working, he had a "sagacious business sense" and was a superb manager of men.

Walpole demonstrated for the first time how a chief minister — a prime minister — could be the actual head of the government under the new constitutional framework.

First, recognising that the sovereign could no longer govern directly but was still the nominal head of the government, he insisted that he was nothing more than the "King's Servant".

Third, recognising that the Cabinet had become the executive and must be united, he dominated the other members and demanded their complete support for his policies.

Fourth, recognising that political parties were the source of ministerial strength, he led the Whig party and maintained discipline. In the Commons, he insisted on the support of all Whig members, especially those who held office.

Finally, he set an example for future prime ministers by resigning his offices in after a vote of confidence , which he won by just three votes.

The slimness of this majority undermined his power, even though he still retained the confidence of the sovereign. For all his contributions, Walpole was not a prime minister in the modern sense.

The king — not Parliament — chose him; and the king — not Walpole — chose the Cabinet. Walpole set an example, not a precedent, and few followed his example.

For over 40 years after Walpole's fall in , there was widespread ambivalence about the position. In some cases, the prime minister was a figurehead with power being wielded by other individuals; in others there was a reversion to the "chief minister" model of earlier times in which the sovereign actually governed.

During Great Britain's participation in the Seven Years' War , for example, the powers of government were divided equally between the Duke of Newcastle and William Pitt , leading to them both alternatively being described as Prime Minister.

Furthermore, many thought that the title "Prime Minister" usurped the sovereign's constitutional position as "head of the government" and that it was an affront to other ministers because they were all appointed by and equally responsible to the sovereign.

For these reasons, there was a reluctance to use the title. Although Walpole is now called the "first" prime minister, the title was not commonly used during his tenure.

Walpole himself denied it. In , during the attack that led to Walpole's downfall, Samuel Sandys declared that "According to our Constitution we can have no sole and prime minister".

In his defence, Walpole said "I unequivocally deny that I am sole or Prime Minister and that to my influence and direction all the affairs of government must be attributed".

Denials of the premiership's legal existence continued throughout the 19th century. In , for example, one member of the Commons said, "the Constitution abhors the idea of a prime minister".

In , Lord Lansdowne said, "nothing could be more mischievous or unconstitutional than to recognise by act of parliament the existence of such an office".

By the turn of the 20th century the premiership had become, by convention, the most important position in the constitutional hierarchy. Yet there were no legal documents describing its powers or acknowledging its existence.

The first official recognition given to the office had only been in the Treaty of Berlin in , when Disraeli signed as "First Lord of the Treasury and Prime Minister of her Britannic Majesty".

As late as , Arthur Balfour explained the status of his office in a speech at Haddington: "The Prime Minister has no salary as Prime Minister.

He has no statutory duties as Prime Minister, his name occurs in no Acts of Parliament, and though holding the most important place in the constitutional hierarchy, he has no place which is recognised by the laws of his country.

This is a strange paradox. In the position was given some official recognition when the "prime minister" was named in the order of precedence , outranked, among non-royals, only by the archbishops of Canterbury and York , the Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland and the Lord Chancellor.

The first Act of Parliament to mention the premiership — albeit in a schedule — was the Chequers Estate Act on 20 December Unequivocal legal recognition was given in the Ministers of the Crown Act , which made provision for payment of a salary to the person who is both "the First Lord of the Treasury and Prime Minister".

Explicitly recognising two hundred years' of ambivalence, the Act states that it intended "To give statutory recognition to the existence of the position of Prime Minister, and to the historic link between the premiership and the office of First Lord of the Treasury, by providing in respect to that position and office a salary of Nevertheless, the brass plate on the door of the prime minister's home, 10 Downing Street , still bears the title of "First Lord of the Treasury", as it has since the 18th century as it is officially the home of the First Lord and not the prime minister.

Following the Irish Rebellion of , the British prime minister, William Pitt the Younger , believed the solution to rising Irish nationalism was a union of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland.

Britain then included England and Wales and Scotland , but Ireland had its own parliament and government, which were firmly Anglo-Irish and did not represent the aspirations of most Irishmen.

For this and other reasons, Pitt advanced his policy, and after some difficulty in persuading the Irish political class to surrender its control of Ireland under the Constitution of , the new union was created by the Acts of Union With effect from 1 January , Great Britain and Ireland were united into a single kingdom, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland , the Parliament of Ireland came to an end, and until British ministers were responsible for all three kingdoms of the British Isles.

Following the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 6 December , which was to be put into effect within one year, the enactment of the Irish Free State Constitution Act was concluded on 5 December , creating the Irish Free State.

Bonar Law , who had been in office as Prime Minister of Great Britain and Ireland for only six weeks, and who had just won the general election of November , thus became the last prime minister whose responsibilities covered both Britain and the whole of Ireland.

Most of a parliamentary session beginning on 20 November was devoted to the Act, and Bonar Law pushed through the creation of the Free State in the face of opposition from the "die hards".

Despite the reluctance to legally recognise the Premiership, ambivalence toward it waned in the s. During the first 20 years of his reign, George III — tried to be his own "prime minister" by controlling policy from outside the Cabinet, appointing and dismissing ministers, meeting privately with individual ministers, and giving them instructions.

These practices caused confusion and dissension in Cabinet meetings; King George's experiment in personal rule was generally a failure. After the failure of Lord North 's ministry — in March due to Britain's defeat in the American Revolutionary War and the ensuing vote of no confidence by Parliament, the Marquess of Rockingham reasserted the prime minister's control over the Cabinet.

Rockingham assumed the Premiership "on the distinct understanding that measures were to be changed as well as men; and that the measures for which the new ministry required the royal consent were the measures which they, while in opposition, had advocated.

From this time, there was a growing acceptance of the position of Prime Minister and the title was more commonly used, if only unofficially.

Lord North, for example, who had said the office was "unknown to the constitution", reversed himself in when he said, "In this country some one man or some body of men like a Cabinet should govern the whole and direct every measure.

The Tories' wholesale conversion started when Pitt was confirmed as Prime Minister in the election of For the next 17 years until and again from to , Pitt, the Tory, was Prime Minister in the same sense that Walpole, the Whig, had been earlier.

Their conversion was reinforced after In that year, George III, who had suffered periodically from mental instability possibly due to porphyria , became permanently insane and spent the remaining 10 years of his life unable to discharge his duties.

The Prince Regent was prevented from using the full powers of kingship. The regent became George IV in , but during his year reign was indolent and frivolous.

Consequently, for 20 years the throne was virtually vacant and Tory Cabinets led by Tory prime ministers filled the void, governing virtually on their own.

The Tories were in power for almost 50 years, except for a Whig ministry from to Lord Liverpool was Prime Minister for 15 years; he and Pitt held the position for 34 years.

Under their long, consistent leadership, Cabinet government became a convention of the constitution. Although subtle issues remained to be settled, the Cabinet system of government is essentially the same today as it was in Under this form of government, called the Westminster system , the Sovereign is head of state and titular head of Her Majesty's Government.

The Sovereign selects as Prime Minister the person who is able to command a working majority in the House of Commons, and invites him or her to form a government.

As the actual Head of Government , the prime minister selects the Cabinet, choosing its members from among those in Parliament who agree or generally agree with his or her intended policies.

The prime minister then recommends the Cabinet to the Sovereign who confirms the selection by formally appointing them to their offices. Led by the prime minister, the Cabinet is collectively responsible for whatever the government does.

The Sovereign does not confer with members privately about policy, nor attend Cabinet meetings. With respect to actual governance, the monarch has only three constitutional rights: to be kept informed, to advise, and to warn.

The modern British system includes not only a government formed by the majority party or coalition of parties in the House of Commons but also an organised and open opposition formed by those who are not members of the governing party.

Seated in the front, directly across from the ministers on the Treasury Bench, the leaders of the opposition form a "shadow government", complete with a salaried "shadow prime minister", the Leader of the Opposition , ready to assume office if the government falls or loses the next election.

Opposing the King's government was considered disloyal, even treasonous, at the end of the 17th century. During the 18th century this idea waned and finally disappeared as the two party system developed.

The expression "His Majesty's Opposition" was coined by John Hobhouse, 1st Baron Broughton. In , Broughton, a Whig, announced in the Commons that he opposed the report of a Bill.

As a joke, he said, "It was said to be very hard on His Majesty's ministers to raise objections to this proposition. For my part, I think it is much more hard on His Majesty's Opposition to compel them to take this course.

Sometimes rendered as the " Loyal Opposition ", it acknowledges the legitimate existence of several political parties , and describes an important constitutional concept: opposing the government is not treason; reasonable men can honestly oppose its policies and still be loyal to the Sovereign and the nation.

Informally recognized for over a century as a convention of the constitution, the position of Leader of the Opposition was given statutory recognition in by the Ministers of the Crown Act.

British prime ministers have never been elected directly by the public. For the last three years he was chairman of the board. Phillipa, a member at Woburn, is a lifelong golfer and has been involved with county golf for 16 years.

She has undertaken a variety of roles, including that of county captain, website administrator and lead course rater for the county.

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